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SSAB EMEA AB, SE-781 84 Borlänge.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Shear cutting is common within several sheet metal industry processing steps, e.
Shearing is fast and cheap relative to competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment that increase with increased sheet material strength.
Accurate shear experiments are a prerequisite to increase the knowledge of shearing parameters, improve industrial shearing, and provide data for validation of numerical shear models.
Here, the two shear parameters clearance and clamp configuration, identified as important to the shear results, were studied in an experimental set-up with well defined tool movement and high measurability of tool position and force.
In addition to force measurements, the sheared edge geometry was characterized.
Steels of low, medium, and high strength were selected for the study.
Throughout the experimental study, the shear tool penetration before fracture decreased with increased material strength.
The required shear force decreased and the force attempting to separate the two shear tools increased when one side of the sheet was left unclamped and free to move.
Further, the maximum shear force increased with decreased clearance.
Clearance changes were small and moreover continuously measured during all shear experiments.
Oldenburg, Mats Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
SSAB EMEA AB, SE-781 84 Borlänge.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Throughout the industrial processes of sheet metal manufacturing and refining, shear cutting is widely used for its speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods.
Industrial shears may include some force measurement possibilities, but the force is most likely influenced by friction losses between shear tool and the point of measurement, and are in general not showing the actual force applied to the sheet.
Well defined shears and accurate measurements of force and shear tool position are important for understanding the influence of shear parameters.
Accurate experimental data are also necessary for calibration of numerical shear models.
Here, a dedicated laboratory set-up with well defined geometry and movement in the shear, and high measurability in terms of force and geometry is designed, built and verified.
Parameters important to the shear process are studied with perturbation analysis techniques and requirements on input parameter accuracy are formulated to meet experimental output demands.
Input parameters in shearing are mostly geometric parameters, but also material properties and contact conditions.
Based on the accuracy requirements, a symmetric experiment with internal balancing of forces, is constructed to avoid guides and corresponding friction losses.
Finally, the experimental procedure is validated through shearing of a medium grade steel.
With the obtained experimental set-up performance, force changes as result of changes in studied input parameters are distinguishable down to a level of one percent.
Shearing is the process where sheet metal is mechanically cut between two tools.
Various shearing technologies are commonly used in the sheet metal industry, for example, in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc.
Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.
The constant development of sheet metals toward higher strength and formability leads to increased forces on the shearing equipment and tools.
Shearing of new sheet materials imply new suitable shearing parameters.
Investigations of the shearing parameters through live tests in the production are expensive and separate experiments are time consuming and requires specialized equipment.
Studies involving a large number of parameters and coupled effects are therefore preferably performed by finite element based simulations.
Accurate experimental data is still a prerequisite to validate such simulations.
There is, however, a shortage of accurate experimental data to validate such simulations.
In industrial shearing processes, measured forces are always larger than the actual forces acting on the sheet, due to friction losses.
Shearing also generates a force that attempts to separate the two tools with changed shearing conditions through increased clearance between the tools as result.
Tool clearance is also the most common shearing parameter to adjust, depending on material grade and sheet thickness, to moderate the required force and to control the final sheared edge geometry.
In this work, an experimental procedure that provides a stable tool clearance together with accurate measurements of tool forces and tool displacements, was designed, built and evaluated.
Important shearing parameters and demands on the experimental set-up were identified in a sensitivity analysis performed with finite element simulations under the assumption of plane strain.
With respect to large tool clearance stability and accurate force measurements, a symmetric experiment with two simultaneous shears and internal balancing of forces attempting to separate the tools was constructed.
Steel sheets of different strength levels were sheared using the above mentioned experimental set-up, with various tool clearances, sheet clamping and rake angles.
Results showed that tool penetration before fracture decreased with increased material strength.
When one side of the sheet was left unclamped and free to move, the required shearing force decreased but instead the force attempting to separate the two tools increased.
Further, the maximum shearing force decreased and the rollover increased with increased tool clearance.
Digital image correlation was applied to measure strains on the sheet surface.
The obtained strain fields, together with a material model, were used to compute the stress state in the sheet.
A comparison, up to crack initiation, of these experimental results with corresponding results from finite element simulations in three dimensions and at a plane strain approximation showed that effective strains on the surface are representative also for the bulk material.
A simple model was successfully applied to calculate the tool forces in shearing with angled tools from forces measured with parallel tools.
These results suggest that, with respect to tool forces, a plane strain approximation is valid also at angled tools, at least for small rake angles.
In general terms, this study provide a stable symmetric experimental set-up with internal balancing of lateral forces, for accurate measurements of tool forces, tool displacements, and sheet deformations, to study the effects of important shearing parameters.
The results give further insight to the strain and stress conditions at crack initiation during shearing, and can also be used to validate models of the shearing process.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.
Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.
Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups are desirable.
For new sheet metal grades, numerical shear models are efficient for finding appropriate shear parameters without the need for time consuming and expensive live tests in the production.
In order to allow for validation of numerical models, accurate experimental data is wanted.
Many industrial equipments for shearing give some measure of applied force, but due to machinery friction losses, measured forces are always higher than the forces acting on the sheet.
Shearing also generates a force that attempts to separate the two shear tools with changed shear conditions through increased clearance between the shear tools as result.
Clearance is also the most common shear parameter to adjust, depending on material grade and sheet thickness, in order to moderate the required force and to control the final sheared edge geometry.
Sheared edges have four characteristic zones, rollover, shear, fracture and burr zones.
Burrs and rough fracture zones complicate the following processing through inadequate tolerances that may imply additional machining and sharp edges that may damage equipment or even cause injuries.
Well defined shears and accurate measurements are important for the understanding of shear parameters.
In this work, an experimental procedure with high measurability and consistent and predictable output, is designed, built and evaluated.
Important shear parameters and demands on the experimental set-up are identified in a perturbation analysis performed with use of finite element method.
Considering the perturbation analyses results, experimental set-up requirements are formulated.
Based on magnitude of the force changes obtained as result of perturbed input parameters in the analyses, force measurements with one percent accuracy are considered necessary.
Since a clearance change of one percentage point results in approximately one percent change in forces, the target experimental clearance stability is an order of magnitude lower, i.
With respect to high clearance stability and accurate force measurements, a symmetric experiment with two simultaneous shears and internal balancing of forces attempting to separate the shear tools, is constructed.
Besides a stable clearance, the experiment features high accuracy force measurements without external friction losses through 20 strain gauges mounted on the set-up.
Since clearance and clamping of the sheet are identified as important to the shear results, these parameters are selected for further experimental studies through shearing of three material grades with various strength.
Judging by the result, shear tool penetration before fracture decreases with increased material strength.
When one side of the sheet is left unclamped and free to move, the required shear force decreases but instead the force attempting to separate the two shear tools increase.
Further, the maximum shear force increases and the rollover decreases with decreased clearance.
In general terms, results from the study are promising for use in validation of numerical shear models.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Shearing is the process where sheet metal is mechanically cut between two tools.
Various shearing technologies are commonly used in the sheet metal industry, for example, in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc.
Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.
The constant development of sheet metals toward higher strength and formability leads to increased forces on the shearing equipment and tools.
Shearing of new sheet materials imply new suitable shearing parameters.
Investigations of the shearing parameters through live tests in the production are expensive and separate experiments are time consuming and requires specialized equipment.
Studies involving a large number of parameters and coupled effects are therefore preferably performed by finite element based simulations.
Accurate experimental data is still a prerequisite to validate such simulations.
There is, however, a shortage of accurate experimental data to validate such simulations.
In industrial shearing processes, measured forces are always larger than the actual forces acting on the sheet, due to friction losses.
Shearing also generates a force that attempts to separate the two tools with changed shearing conditions through increased clearance between the tools as result.
Tool clearance is also the most common shearing parameter to adjust, depending on material grade and sheet thickness, to moderate the required force and to control the final sheared edge geometry.
In this work, an experimental procedure that provides a stable tool clearance together with accurate measurements of tool forces and tool displacements, was designed, built and evaluated.
Important shearing parameters and demands on the experimental set-up were identified in a sensitivity analysis performed with finite element simulations under the assumption of plane strain.
With respect to large tool clearance stability and accurate force measurements, a symmetric experiment with two simultaneous shears and internal balancing of forces attempting to separate the tools was constructed.
Steel sheets of different strength levels were sheared using the above mentioned experimental set-up, with various tool clearances, sheet clamping and rake angles.
Results showed that tool penetration before fracture decreased with increased material strength.
When one side of the sheet was left unclamped and free to move, the required shearing force decreased but instead the force attempting to separate the two tools increased.
Further, michigan keno numbers frequency maximum shearing force decreased and the rollover increased with increased tool clearance.
Digital image correlation was applied to measure strains on the sheet surface.
The obtained strain fields, together with a material model, were used to compute the stress state in the sheet.
A comparison, up to crack initiation, of these experimental results with corresponding results from finite element simulations in three dimensions and at a plane strain approximation showed that effective strains on the surface are representative also for the bulk material.
A simple model was successfully applied to calculate the tool forces in shearing with angled tools from forces measured with parallel tools.
These results suggest that, with respect to tool forces, a plane strain approximation is valid also at angled tools, at least for small rake angles.
In general terms, this study provide a stable symmetric experimental set-up with internal balancing of lateral forces, for accurate measurements of tool forces, tool displacements, and sheet deformations, to study the effects of important shearing parameters.
The results give further insight to the strain and stress conditions at crack initiation during shearing, and can also be used to validate models of the shearing process.
Karlsson, Lars Högskolan Dalarna, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Materialteknik.
Consequently, published experimental studies of shearing can be found from over a century back in time.
Recent studies, however, are due to the availability of low cost digital computation power, mostly based on finite element simulations that guarantees quick results.
Still, for validation of models and simulations, accurate experimental data is a requisite.
When applicable, 2D models are in general desirable over 3D models because of advantages like low computation time and easy model formulation.
Shearing of sheet metal with parallel tools is successfully modelled in 2D with a plane strain approximation, but with angled tools the approximation is less obvious.
Therefore, plane strain approximations for shearing with angled tools were evaluated by shear experiments of high accuracy.
Tool angle, tool clearance, and clamping of the sheet were varied in the experiments.
The results showed that the measured forces in shearing with angled tools can be approximately calculated using force measurements from shearing with parallel tools.
Shearing energy was introduced as a quantifiable measure of suitable tool clearance range.
The effects of the shearing parameters on forces were in agreement with previous studies.
Based on the agreement between calculations and experiments, analysis based on a plane strain assumption is considered applicable for angled tools with a small up to 2 degrees rake angle.
Oldenburg, Mats Luleå University of Technology.
These kinds of data are a requisite to validate shearing models and to simulate the shearing process.
In this work, strain fields were continuously measured during shearing of a medium and a high strength steel sheet, using digital image correlation.
Preliminary studies based on finite element simulations, suggested that the effective surface strains are a good approximation of the bulk strains below the surface.
The experiments were performed in a symmetric set-up with large stiffness and stable tool clearances, using various combinations of tool clearance and clamping configuration.
Due to large deformations, strains were measured from images captured in a series of steps from shearing start to final fracture.
Both the Cauchy and Hencky strain measures were considered, but the difference between these were found negligible with the number of increments used about 20 to 50.
Force-displacement curves were also determined for the various experimental conditions.
The measured strain fields displayed a thin band of large strain between the tool edges.
Shearing with two clamps resulted in a symmetric strain band whereas there was an extended area with large strains around the tool at the unclamped side when shearing with one clamp.
Furthermore, one or two cracks were visible on most of the samples close to the tool edges well before final fracture.
The fracture strain was larger for the medium strength material compared with the high-strength material and increased with increasing clearance.
Oldenburg, Mats Luleå University of Technology.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Strain and stress conditions in sheet metal shearing are of interest for calibration of various fracture criteria.
Most fracture criterion are governed by effective strain and stress triaxiality.
This work is an attempt to extend previous measurements of strain fields in shearing of steel sheets with the stress state calculated from the measured displacement fields.
Results are presented in terms of von Mises stress and stress triaxiality fields, and a comparison was made with finite element simulations.
Also an evaluation of the similarities of the stress conditions on the sheet surface and inside the bulk material were presented.
Strains and von Mises stresses were similar on the surface and the bulk material, but the stress triaxiality was not comparable.
There were large gradients in strain and stress around the curved tool profiles that made the results resolution dependent and comparisons of maximum strain and stress values difficult.
The stress state on the sheet surface calculated from displacement field measurements is still useful for validation of a three dimensional finite element model.
Jansson, Anders 2018 Inngår i: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Throughout the industrial processes of sheet metal manufacturing and refining, shear cutting is widely used for its speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods.
Industrial shears may include some force measurement possibilities, but the force is most likely influenced by friction losses between shear tool michigan keno numbers frequency the point of measurement, and are in general not showing the actual force applied to the sheet.
Well defined shears and accurate measurements of force and shear tool position are important for understanding the influence of shear parameters.
Accurate experimental data are also necessary for calibration of numerical shear models.
Here, a dedicated laboratory set-up with well defined geometry and movement in the shear, and high measurability in terms of force and geometry is designed, built and verified.
Parameters important to the shear process are studied with perturbation analysis techniques and requirements on input parameter accuracy are formulated to meet experimental output demands.
Input parameters in shearing are mostly geometric parameters, but also material properties and contact conditions.
Based on the accuracy requirements, a symmetric experiment with internal balancing of forces is constructed to avoid guides and corresponding friction losses.
Finally, the experimental procedure is validated through shearing of a medium grade steel.
With the obtained experimental set-up performance, force changes as result of changes in studied input parameters are distinguishable down to a level of 1%.
Jansson, Anders 2018 Inngår i: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Shear cutting is common within several sheet metal industry processing steps, e.
Shearing is fast and cheap relative to competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment that increase with increased sheet material strength.
Accurate shear experiments are a prerequisite to increase the knowledge of shearing parameters, improve industrial shearing, and provide data for validation of numerical shear models.
Here, the two shear parameters clearance and clamp configuration, identified as important to the shear results, were studied in an experimental set-up with well defined tool movement and high measurability of tool position and force.
In addition to force measurements, the sheared edge geometry was characterized.
Steels of low, medium, and high strength were selected for the study.
Throughout the experimental study, the shear tool penetration before fracture decreased with increased material strength.
The required shear force decreased and the force attempting to separate the two shear tools increased when one side of the sheet was left unclamped and free to move.
Further, the maximum shear force increased with decreased clearance.
Clearance changes were small and moreover continuously measured during all shear experiments.
Strömberg, Niclas Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert In this work residual stresses in a stress lattice are studied.
The residual stresses are both measured and simulated.
The stress lattice is casted of low alloyed grey cast iron.
In fact, nine similar lattices are casted and measured.
The geometry of the lattice consists of three sections in parallel.
The diameter of the two outer sections are thinner than the section in the middle.
When the stress lattice cools down, this difference in geometry yields that the outer sections start to solidify and contract before the section in the middle.
Finally, an equilibrium state, with tensile stresses in the middle and compressive stresses in the outer sections, is reached.
The thermo-mechanical simulation of the experiments is performed by using Abaqus.
The thermo-mechanical solidification is assumed to be uncoupled.
First a thermal analysis, where the lattice is cooled down to room temperature, is performed.
Latent heat is included in the analysis by letting the fraction of solid be a linear function of the temperature in the mushy zone.
After the thermal analysis a quasi-static mechanical analysis is performed where the temperature history is considered to be the external force.
A rate independent J 2-plasticity model with isotropic hardening is considered, where the material data depend on the temperature.
Tensile tests are performed at room temperature, 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C in order to evaluate the Young´s modulus, the yield strength and the hardening accurate.
In addition, the thermal expansion coefficient is evaluated for temperatures between room temperature and 1000°C.
The state of residual stresses is measured by cutting the mid section or the outer section.
The corresponding elastic spring-back reveals the state of residual stresses.
The measured stresses are compared to the numerical simulations.
The simulations show good agreement with the results from the experiments.
Strömberg, Niclas School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
Konferansepaper Fagfellevurdert In this work a general method for structural optimization of nonlinear structures is implemented using FE-analysis.
The method utilizes the response surface methodology with polynomial surfaces and nonlinear programming.
In such manner a method that is applicable for a large number of different classes of nonlinear problems is obtained.
In this paper, the method is utilized to minimize weight of castings by including residual stresses from solidification.
This is performed by first determine the residual stresses by a thermomechanical analysis of a metal structure that is cooled from a temperature above liquidus temperature down to room temperature.
The thermomechanical analysis is uncoupled where the temperature distribution within the casting as a function of time is determined first and is later on used for residual stress calculations.
These residual stresses are then included when the mechanical load is applied to the structure and the problem of minimum of weight is formulated.
The structure shown in this paper is an example of a two dimensional geometry.
The shape of the structures will of course affect the residual stress distribution during the optimization.
A set of solutions are generated by solving the model for a pre-defined set of parameters.
In order to minimize the number of simulations and still achieve good surface approximations these parameters are taken to be D-optimal.
The sets of solutions and parameters are in turn exported to Matlab where general quadratic response surfaces are fitted by the least square method.
By utilizing these surfaces the problem of minimum of weight subjected to constraints on stresses is formulated.
Finally, the nonlinear optimization problem is solved by sequential linear programming.
The method utilizes the response surface methodology with polynomial surfaces and nonlinear programming.
In such manner a method that is applicable for a large number of different classes of nonlinear problems is obtained.
For instance plasticity problems, thermomechanical problems and contact problems can be optimized using this strategy.
In this paper, the method is utilized to minimize weight of castings by including residual stresses michigan keno numbers frequency solidification.
This is performed by first determine the residual stresses by a thermomechanical analysis of a metal structure that is cooled down from a temperature above liquidus temperature down to room temperature.
These residual stresses are then included when the problem of minimum of weight is formulated.
The shape of the structure will of course affect the residual stress distribution during the optimization and the optimal shape will be different from the one obtained when residual stresses are not included in the analysis.
The method is implemented by using a Python script and m-files.
In such way a parameterized model can easily be treated in ABAQUS and Matlab during the optimization process.
A set of solutions are generated by solving the model for a pre-defined michigan keno numbers frequency of parameters.
In order to minimize the number of simulations and still achieve good surface approximations these parameters are taken to be D-optimal.
The sets of solutions and parameters are in turn exported to Matlab where general quadratic response surfaces are fitted by the least square method.
By utilizing these surfaces the problem of minimum of weight subjected to constraints on stresses is formulated.
Finally, the nonlinear optimization problem is solved by sequential linear programming where the linear part is solved using Matlab.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert In this paper, an optimization routine for a thermomechanical problem is presented.
The optimization routine is based on the successive response surface methodology where the panning and zooming technique presented by Stander and Craig has been implemented and improved.
The optimization routine has been applied to an optimization problem of a three-dimensional beam that undergoes a solidification process.
The material in the beam is assumed to be low-alloyed gray iron.
The thermomechanical solidification analysis is uncoupled where, first, a thermal analysis is performed to determine the thermal history.
This thermal history is then used to calculate the residual stresses in the beam.
The residual stresses are solved by using classical J 2 -plasticity with temperature-dependent material properties.
The residual stresses from solidification are then carried on to the structural analysis where a mechanical load is applied.
These are all linked together via scripts, and the commercial FE software Abaqus is used as the FE solver.
The obtained maximum von Mises stress and mass information for every set of parameters are then exported to Matlab where general quadratic response surfaces are fitted by a least square method.
Taken together, these response surfaces define a minimum of weight problem, which is solved by using sequential linear programming.
To minimize the number of evaluations needed, the parameters are chosen to be D-optimally selected.
The numerical results show that the residual stresses from solidification might influence the optimal shape significantly.
The residual stress results have been compared with those obtained from casting simulation softwares, and the results are similar.
The optimization has been compared with a commercial optimization software and shows very promising results.
Strömberg, Niclas Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Jönköping, Sweden.
In this thesis a model is developed for calculating the loads on the wetclutches in apowershift transmission.
This thesis was done at Volvo CE in Eskilstuna and is focusedon their 4-speed countershaft transmissions.
The goal of the project is to be able tocalculate the loads automatically during the transmission tests and thus acquire increasedknowledge about what occurs during operation.
The model was developed by first generating a number of concepts and then evalu-ating them to decide which one should be developed further.
The chosen concept wasthen developed further and implemented into the test equipment as a calculation script.
The chosen loads to model were the energy absorbed in each clutch, the coefficient offriction COF and the slip distance.
The COF was later found to give too unreliableresults to be used in any other way than as a benchmark for how well the model wasconfigured and to see any large changes in COF.
The model was validated by calculating the energy absorbed in a HTE-200 seriestransmission and comparing it to a reference calculation model.
It was seen that theresults from the new model are very close to the reference result.
The energy lostcalculated by the new model will be equal to 94 % of the energy lost calculated by thereference model, but only when measuring the inertia phase.
The energy lost is equalto 135 % when the torque phase is included.
The increasing difference is believed tobe because of an error in the reference model that means it does not cover the torquephase.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Transportation and storage are important parts in the process chain for producers of iron ore pellets.
Knowledge and optimization of these processes are very important for further efficiency progress and increased product quality.
The existence of a numerical simulation tool with accurate material characteristics will significantly increase the possibility to predict critical forces in developing new and existing transportation and storing systems and thereby decrease the amount of damaged, fractured or crushed pellets fines.
The objective is to increase the knowledge of the mechanical stresses in iron ore pellets and its effects on the level of damaged material in the handling chain.
This includes a better understanding of the iron ore pellets mechanical properties and fracture behaviour.
Both experimental and numerical modelling works have been completed to increase the knowledge in these fields.
Modelling and characterization of iron ore pellets are carried out at different length scales.
Material parameters for an elastic plastic granular continuum material model are determined for modelling large quantities of iron ore pellets.
A flow model of iron ore pellets in silos using smoothed particle SP method is presented.
From experimental two point load tests, a finite element FE model of single iron ore pellets is worked out with statistical data for an elastic plastic constitutive model with a fracture criterion.
In order to find the relation between the behaviour of iron ore pellets at different length scales, e.
A method of instrumented confined compression tests is developed for measuring the global response on a limited amount of iron ore pellets.
The same experiment is virtually reproduced with a multi particle finite element model MPFEM consisting of individual discretized models of the iron ore pellets.
This work has given a better understanding of the mechanical behaviour and fracture of iron ore pellets.
Another outcome is refined experimental methods to determine mechanical properties and fracture of iron ore pellets.
Constitutive data and numerical models for iron ore pellets are also worked out.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Knowledge and optimization of these processes are very important for further efficiency progress and increased product quality.
The existence of a numerical simulation tool with accurate material characteristics will significantly increase the possibility to predict critical forces in developing new and existing transportation and storing systems and thereby decrease the amount of damaged, fractured or crushed pellets fines.
In this work modelling and simulation of iron ore pellets are carried out at different length scales.
The model is used to model iron ore pellets silo flow.
The model is used to simulate loading and fracture on single iron ore pellets and is validated with a two point load test.
In order to find the relation between the behaviour of iron ore pellets at different length scales, e.
The experiment is used to validate the MPFEM model in terms of the amount of broken pellets.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert The multi-particle finite element method MPFEM is used to simulate confined compression of iron ore pellets.
The confined compression test consists of a cylindrical steel tube and two compressive platens.
The iron ore pellets are confined by the tools and compressed.
In the MPFEM model of the test, the iron ore pellets are represented by 1680 finite element FE discretised particles 7-16 mm.
The size, shape and material properties of the pellets are statistically distributed.
The contacts are modelled using the penalty stiffness method and Coulomb friction.
The compression is simulated in two steps.
In the first step, the iron ore pellet models are sparsely placed in the computational model of the steel tube and a gravity-driven simulation is conducted to make the pellets arrange themselves randomly.
In a second step, the compression is simulated by a prescribed motion of the upper compressive platen.
From the MPFEM simulation, the stresses inside the individual pellet models are evaluated, and the fracture probability of the iron ore pellets is derived and compared with experimental data.
In addition, data on the global axial and radial stresses and axial displacement are presented and compared with experimental confined compression test data.
The MPFEM model can reproduce the fracture ratio of iron ore pellets in uniaxial confined compression and is a feasible method for virtual fracture experiments of iron ore pellets.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content.
Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel.
In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different stresses, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation.
For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed.
This paper describes the experimental and numerical work to investigate the mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets.
To study the load deformation behaviour and the fracture of iron ore pellets, a number of point load tests are carried out and analysed.
Material parameters for an elastic—plastic constitutive model with linear hardening for iron ore pellets are derived and expressed in terms of statistical means and standard deviations.
Two finite element models are developed for different purposes.
For the material parameter determination, a perfectly spherical model is used.
The constitutive model is validated with a finite element model based on a representative optically scanned iron ore pellet.
The proposed constitutive model is capturing the force displacement relation for iron ore pellets in a two-point load test.
A stress based fracture criterion which takes the triaxiality into account is suggested and calculated as the maximum equivalent effective stress dependent on the three principal stresses at fracture.
The results of this study show that the equivalent effective stress in the vicinity of the centre of an irregular model of an iron ore pellet is very close to the results of a model of a perfectly spherical iron ore pellet.
The proposed fracture criterion indicates fracture in the representative iron ore pellet model coincident with the location of the crack developed during the test of the optically scanned iron ore pellet.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Marklund, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert In this work, an experimental method for measuring the bulk properties and fracture loading relations for iron ore pellets is presented.
Knowledge on the bulk behaviour and fracture data for iron ore pellets is of great importance for improving the material transportation systems and to increase the product quality.
Trustworthy numerical simulations of iron ore pellets also demand reliable materials data for the models.
Here, instrumented confined compression tests are carried out at different load levels.
Measurement data of the axial and radial stresses and the axial displacement are recorded for each test.
Measurements of fractured iron ore pellets are carried out at different loads giving rise to crushing up to 20% of the total material.
From the measured data, the Poisson´s ratio, the bulk modulus and a plastic strain hardening function are determined.
In addition, friction measurements of iron ore pellets are carried out at different loads and configurations.
In conclusion, the test method developed here is usable for the determination of the bulk properties and fracture characteristics of iron ore pellets.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och michigan keno numbers frequency />Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Nishida, Masahiro Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan, Nagoya Institute of Technology.
Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel.
In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation.
For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed.
This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets.
To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Larsson, Simon Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Blast furnace iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized ore spheres with a high iron content.
Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel.
In transporting pellets from pelletizing plants to customers, iron ore pellets are exposed to different static and dynamic loading situations, resulting in strength degradation and, in some cases, fragmentation.
This can lead to a reduced gas flow in the blast furnace, which causes reduced quality in steel production.
Reliable numerical simulations that can predict the ability of the pellets to endure their handling are important tools for optimizing the design of equipment for iron ore handling.
This paper describes the experimental and numerical work performed to investigate the impact fracture behaviour of iron ore pellets at different strain rates.
A number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests with different striker velocities are carried out and analysed to investigate the strain rate dependency of the fracture strength of iron ore pellets.
Fracture data for iron ore pellets are derived and expressed in terms of statistical means and standard deviations.
A stress based, strain-rate dependent fracture model that takes triaxiality into account is suggested.
The fracture model is used and validated with impact tests of iron ore pellets.
In the validation experiment, iron ore pellets are fired against a steel plate, and the percentage of fractured pellets at different impact velocities are measured.
Finite element simulations of the experiment are carried out and the probability of pellets fracturing during impact are calculated and compared with the experimental results.
The agreement between the experiments and numerical simulations shows the validity of the model.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Manufactures tend to produce components with more complicated shapes which demand complex pressing equipment and methods.
Mechanical properties of powder materials changes dramatically from the beginning to the end of the compaction phase.
Previous investigations have shown that powder transfer and high powder flow during filling affects the strength of the final component significantly.
Experimental studies combined with simulations is likely to improve the understanding of the filling stage, e.
This work covers both experimental measurements and umerical modelling of powder filling.
Experimental measurements with digital speckle photography DSP is used to study the powder behaviour and for the characterisation of the die filling as part of the process in powder pressing.
TheDSP measurements are carried out by recording the powder filling process with a high speed video camera.
The image series are then evaluated using an image correlation technique.
By this, field data during the filling process can be visualised such as velocity fields and strain fields.
These measurements are also supporting the development of a numerical model of the process.
In this workthe smoothed particle method SPH is used to model the powder filling process.
The numerical results are compared with the DSP measurements.
The validated model is then used to study the process in more detail, e.
The comparison of DPS measurements and simulations gives similar flow characteristics.
Experimental measurements with DSP together with numerical simulation with the SP method are powerful tools to increase the knowledge of powder filling and to improve the process in the future is concluded.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
High velocity compaction is a production technique with capacity to significantly improve the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy PM parts.
The dynamic testing is performed using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar SHPB.
A specimen is placed between two elastic bars.
The impact loading is achieved by a projectile accelerating inside an air gun, which impacts the end of an input bar creating elastic wave propagation.
This process is modelled and simulated by using finite element method.
The stress and strain history in the specimen during impact are compared with the evaluated experimental values from the strain measured on the input and output bars.
The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, 0.
In order to model the impact process a constitutive relation describing the powder behaviour taking into account the strain-rate and density variations are proposed.
In conclusion, the proposed material model captures the increase in yield stress due to higher strain rates.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Few studies have been conducted to investigate the strain rate behavior of metal powders.
To achieve better understanding of the strain rate dependency of metal powders, it's necessary to conduct dynamic experiments and numerical simulations e.
The dynamic testing is performed using a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar Kolsky bar.
A specimen is placed between two elastic bars.
The impact loading is achieved by a projectile accelerating inside an air gun, which impacts the end of an input bar creating elastic wave propagation.
The powder material used for the experiments was a press-ready premix containing Distaloy AE, 0.
This process is modeled and simulated by using finite element method.
The stress and strain history in click specimen during impact is validated against the experimental measurements.
To capture the global response caused by cracking during impact, a failure criterion is implemented.
In conclusion, the proposed material model captures the increase in yield stress due to higher strain rates and the decrease in stress due to cracking.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Nishida, Masahiro Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan, Nagoya Institute of Technology.
Häggblad, Hans-åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Todo, Mitsugu Kyushu University, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka, Japan.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Poly ε-caprolactone PCL is a ductile, bioabsorbable polymer that has been employed as a blend partner for poly L-lactic acid PLLA.
Finite element simulations of the split Hopkinson pressure bar test using the established constitutive model are carried out under the same condition as the experiments.
During the experiments, the changes in the diameter and thickness of the specimens are captured by a high-speed video camera.
The accuracy of the numerical model is tested by comparing the simulation results, such as the stress, strain, thickness and diameter histories of the specimens, with those measured in the experiments.
The numerical model is also validated against an impact test of non-homogenous strains and strain rates.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Häggblad, Hans-Åke Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Jonsén, Pär Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
Ogura, Takashi Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Japan.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert A production technique with the capacity to significantly improve the mechanical properties of powder metallurgy PM parts is high-velocity compaction HVC.
To extend the usage of the HVC method, detailed knowledge of the HVC process is important.
To facilitate the development of production processes, numerical simulations can be utilised.
In the development of high-precision simulation models, constitutive data of HVC specimens at high strain rates are required.
In this study, the dynamic compressive properties of cylindrical specimens made by HVC were measured using a split Hopkinson pressure bar Kolsky bar assembly.
For this technique, a specimen is placed between two elastic bars.
The impact loading is achieved by a projectile accelerating inside an air gun, which impacts the end of the input bar and generates elastic-wave propagation.
The powder material used for the experiments is a press-ready iron-based premix.
Among specimens made by HVC and conventional compaction CCthe effects of the specimen density and the strain rate on the compressive properties, such as failure stress, Young´s modulus and failure behaviour, michigan keno numbers frequency investigated.
During dynamic compression, the failure behaviour of the specimens was also recorded using a high-speed video camera.
The difference in the mechanical behaviour between HVC-pressed specimens and conventionally pressed specimens are also investigated.
The stress—strain curves of HVC-pressed specimens are identical to those of conventionally pressed specimens, but the failure behaviour differs are concluded.
A well-established numerical method for forming simulations also conducted for powder compaction is the finite element method FEM.
The impact loading of the powder is modelled and simulated using nonlinear three-dimensional FEM.
To model the impact process, a constitutive relation for the powder behaviour is proposed, taking into account the strain rate and density variations.
To capture the global response caused by cracking during impact, a damage model is implemented.
The numerical results in terms of the stress and strain history in the specimen during impact are compared with the experimental measurements.
In conclusion, the proposed material model captures the increase in the yield stress due to the higher strain rates and the decrease in stress due to cracking.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
Jacobson, Staffan Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert A clever way to accomplish low friction in sliding contacts is to use materials that combine high hardness with low shear strength.
Such seemingly paradoxical combination of high resistance and low resistance to plastic deformation can only be realized by combining a hard substrate material with a thin easy-shear coating.
Some prominent such coating candidates are sulfides and selenides of mainly molybdenum and tungsten.
This paper focuses on tungsten disulfide, WS2, and explores the many routes to formation and regeneration of such low-friction tribofilms.
The initial surfaes involve various types of coatings, materials and fluids, including W and S in different states, but none of which include crystalline WS2.
All formation routes result in remarkably similar, pure crystalline WS2 tribofilms.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert Many laboratory experiments in electrical engineering courses can be performed remotely using real equipment in a laboratory.
Traditional circuit theory experiments have been conducted over the Internet at Blekinge Institute of Technology BTH in Sweden using the same experimental set-up from different locations simultaneously.
The circuits are formed using remotely controlled switch matrices.
The instruments and switch matrices used are computer-based PXI PCI Extensions for instrumentation devices which have virtual front panels that can be displayed on a remote PC.
This approach is neither a simulation nor a SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition application.
The students control the instruments in the same way as they would in a local laboratory.
The only difference is that they do not form the circuits and connect the test probes manually.
These laboratory experiments have been used successfully in undergraduate engineering education at BTH and at Luleå University of Technology, Sweden using a lab server at BTH.
Two transducer laboratory exercises are also available for more experienced students, who mostly welcome the chance of doing the experiments from home at any convenient time.
These exercises contain comparatively slow mechanical movements allowing only one user to be logged on and controlling the experiments at once.
Video transmission is provided so other users can follow what is happening and also perform parts of the experiments.
This project has investigated the possibilities to build a cheap inverted pendulum with controller and connect this with the modeling language Acumen.
Acumen models is used for comparison with the actual prototype.
To solve these problems has a 3D printer been used to create hardware, Arduino UNO for control and Raspberry Pi for enable communication with Acumen over WLAN.
The result was a cheap inverted pendulum, which can be built for a cost around 750 SEK.
Graphs created in Acumen and from data collected from sensors can be analyzed.
With a model of the inverted pendulum system, the results show that Acumen can be used in the development of cyber-physical systems.
There are differences between model and reality but also similarities.
Since the analyses are computationally expensive and time-consuming when using full models, Reduced Order Models Michigan keno numbers frequency are utilized to decrease the number of Degrees Of Freedom DOF and consequently analysis time and cost.
The ROM used in the current analysis belongs to the component mode synthesis CMS method with a free-interface approach known as Craig-Chang.
A transonic high pressure turbine is investigated featuring large ranges of disk and blade dominated modes depending in the Nodal Diameter ND.
The free-interface approach will be assessed in the disk and blade dominated regions with a detailed study of the frequencies and mode shapes.
In addition, a forced response analysis within the blade dominated region is evaluated in the paper.
Moreover, a study of the amount of modes required in the basis for the reduced order transformation matrix is presented.
Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
The thesis examines the fatigue life of weld ends, where very little usable research previously has been conducted, and often the weld ends are the critical parts of the weld.
It is essential knowing the fatigue life of welds to be able to use them most efficiently.
The report is divided into two parts; in the first the different calculation methods used today at Toyota Material Handling are examined and compared.
Based on the results from the analysis and what is used mostly today, the effective notch approach is the method used in part two.
To validate the calculation methods and models used, fatigue testing of the welded test specimens was conducted together with a stress test.
New modelling methods of the weld ends that coincide with the test results were made in the finite element software Abaqus.
A new way of modelling the weld ends for the effective notch method is also proposed.
By using a notch radius of 0.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap SCIFarkost och flyg, MWL Numerisk akustik.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap SCICentra, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
Cuenca, Jacques KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap SCIFarkost och flyg, MWL Numerisk akustik.
Siemens Industry Software Leuven Belgium.
Van der Kelen, Christophe KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap SCIFarkost och flyg, MWL Marcus Wallenberg Laboratoriet.
Engström, Jens Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
Eriksson, Mikael Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
Isberg, Jan Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
Leijon, Mats Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Elektricitetslära.
Artikkel i tidsskrift Fagfellevurdert One of the major challenges in constructing effective and economically viable wave energy parks is to reduce the large fluctuations in power output.
In this paper, we study different methods of reducing the fluctuations and improve the output power quality.
The parameters studied include the number of devices, the separating distance between units, the global and local geometries of the array, sea state and incoming wave direction, and the impact of including buoys of different radii in an array.
Our results show that, e.
However, including more devices in a park with fixed area will not necessarily result in lowered power fluctuations.
We also show that varying the distance between units affects the power fluctuations to a much larger extent than it affects the magnitude of the absorbed power.
The fluctuations are slightly lower in more realistic, randomized geometries where the buoys tend to drift slightly off their mean positions, and significantly lower in semi-circular geometries as opposed to rectangular geometries.
The world is changing.
Big cities are attracting more and more population, millions every day and growing.
Who among the megacity dwellers would want to wake up in the morning staring at a construction demolition site, dusty, rusty and noisy?
The increasing need for an improved infrastructure within the mega cities evokes a big industry of building replacements.
The complex combination of building materials and methods is making the de-construction and recycling the demolition waste material very difficult.
Today's methods are very complex, time consuming and the end use of the by-products are very limited.
Moreover all of these methods are further limited by governmental regulations and laws.
These laws are held in order to keep the dynamic city life to be able to cope with the de-construction jobs running around the city.
Reinforced concrete being the most celebrated and used structural element, how might we find a smarter way to de-construct it and re-use the byproduct more accurately?
The model accounts for transverse shear, due to the weakness of the core in such plates compared to the facings.
This was done utilizing energy relations and rst order transverse shear.
The panel was homogenised using laminate theory.
A detailed model using FEM was derived in order to validate the predictive capabilities of the analytical model.
Experimental testing was performed to estimate the accuracy of both theoretical models, and assess the limitation of the analytical model.
All modes of analysis showed good agreement for cubic boxes.
Further investigation into expanding the scope of the analytical model was carried out and commented on.

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